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BAIL COMMERCIAL DÉPART À LA RETRAITE DU LOCATAIRE - Murinfo

BAIL COMMERCIAL DÉPART À LA RETRAITE DU LOCATAIRE

 

Afin de favoriser le départ à la retraite des commerçants, personnes physiques, exploitant un fonds de commerce, la Loi accorde à ces personnes la faculté de :

  • mettre fin au bail à tout moment sans attendre l’expiration d’une période triennale

  • céder le droit au bail pour une autre activité que celle autorisée dans le bail

Ces mesures s’étendent également aux handicapés bénéficiaires d’une pension d’invalidité, à l’associé unique d’une EURL et au gérant majoritaire d’une SARL.

Ces dispositions ont été insérées dans le Décret de 30 Septembre 1953 au Titre VII relatif à la déspécialisation, à cette fin il a été créé l'article 34-3-1 qui entre dans les mesures portant déspécialisation plénière.

 
II - LES FORMALITES

Dans le cadre d’une résiliation du bail :

Le preneur doit :

  • signifier son congé par acte d’huissier en respectant les usages des lieux et au moins 6 mois avant le départ prévu.

  • justifier qu’il a demandé à bénéficier de ses droits à la retraite.

N.B. : le preneur qui donne congé renonce à toute indemnité d’éviction et à tout droit ; les aménagements réalisés deviennent la propriété du bailleur selon les termes du bail et donc le plus souvent sans indemnité.


Dans le cadre d’une cession de droit au bail :

Le preneur doit :

  • signifier par acte d’huissier aux créanciers inscrits sur le fonds de commerce et au propriétaire son intention de céder son droit au bail en précisant la nature des activités envisagées ainsi que le prix proposé. Il n’a aucune obligation de mentionner le nom de l’acquéreur.

N.B. : cette mesure ne dispense pas le locataire de respecter les autres clauses du bail et notamment celle d’exploiter les lieux loués jusqu’au jour de la cession après avoir demandé la liquidation de sa retraite.


Le bailleur aura alors un délai de 2 mois pour :

  • soit accepter la cession proposée et le bail se poursuivra au profit du nouveau preneur aux mêmes conditions et au même loyer. Seule l’activité sera changée.

Toutefois, la question de savoir si le nouveau bailleur peut demander au nouveau locataire, en contrepartie, une indemnité ou une révision du loyer, n’a pas été réglée par le législateur. Ainsi n’est pas n'interdit le paiement à la charge du locataire d'une indemnité de déspécialisation prévue par l'article 34-3 égale au montant du préjudice dont le bailleur établirait l'existence. Par ailleurs, l’acceptation par le bailleur des nouvelles activités peut constituer un motif de déplafonnement de loyer lors du renouvellement du bail qui aura lieu au profit de l’acquéreur.

  • soit exercer son droit de préemption et racheter le droit au bail au preneur pour le prix proposé.

  • soit contester les nouvelles activités indiquées mais il devra saisir le tribunal de grande instance pour régler le litige et justifier de l’incompatibilité des activités avec la destination, les caractères et la situation de l’immeuble. Au cas où le Tribunal jugerait l’opposition du bailleur injustifiée, il pourrait le condamner à verser des dommages et intérêts au locataire en réparation du préjudice causé par l’impossibilité de la cession. 

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